Technology Adoption and Integration Models

Students within the mentoring program examine questions related to technology use within teaching and learning contexts. They study different technology adoption models and considered how the different models are evident in their work with in schools and with their learning partners. This page highlights some of models and frameworks students have examined. For more information check out the different resources below.

Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge

The TPACK model (Mishra & Koehler, 2006) represents the intersections of various knowledge domains teachers use as they consider technology integration within their instructional practices. This model is very useful in helping teachers consider their instructional contexts, and how they may utilize available technologies that align with their pedagogical practices and aid in meeting their instructional objectives. District leaders and Technology Coaches will find this model useful in professional development sessions and planning sessions. Follow the links below to find out more information about TPACK.

SITE Conference Keynote Address:

TPACK Homepage:
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C-BAM and the Implementation Bridge

Another model to consider for district leaders, technology directors and coaches is the Concerns Based Adoption Model (C-BAM) developed by Hall & Hord (2012). The model is very detailed and emphasizes that adoption is a process. Leaders should consider a variety of factors that can aid or hinder the change process. A useful tool within the change process is the Implementation Bridge. The Bridge articulates existing practices and the implementation process needed in order for new practices to take hold. For more information follow the links below.

A really good video on C-BAM:
Lecture from Dr. Hall on the Change process:
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International Society for Technology in Education (ISTE) National Educational Standards for Coaches (NETS-C)

The ISTE National Educational Standards for Coaches (NETS-C) serve as a guide for technology mentors as they work with their learning partners throughout the semester. The standards emphasize the importance of collaboration, modeling, and continuous professional growth.

To find out more about the technology standards for coaches, follow the link below.



The SAMR model (Puentedura, 2006) can help teachers, technology coaches, and school leaders identify how they may be using technology within their teaching and learning contexts and how current use may be transformed as teachers move up the SAMR ladder. Districts have used SAMR, as well as the Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow (ACOT) stages of technology adoption, to assist teachers in considering where they are in the adoption of technology and to help teachers redefine their instructional practices as technology is used to create more constructivist and student centered learning environments. Follow the links below to find out more about the SAMR model.

Dr. Puentedura's Weblog:

Kathy Schrock's Guide to Everything:
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Diffusion of Innovations Theory

Diffusion of Innovations Theory was developed by Dr. Everett Rogers and can help district leaders and teachers understand the process by which innovations are adopted. The theory helps explain how, why, and at what rate a new innovation (ideas or technology) might spread through cultures. Key elements to the theory are the innovations, the adopters, communication channels, time, and the social system that my influence the potential adopter. To find out more about Diffusion of Innovation Theory check out the resources below.

Dr. Rogers Discussing the theory:
YouTube Video on the Theory:
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Broffenbrennor Ecological Systems Theory for student learning

The ecological systems theory is most frequently used to describe the various systems that impact a child's development. This provides a powerful explanation of all the different factors that can influence student learning. When examining technology adoption in schools and by teachers, the ecological systems theory is useful in helping to understand the influences that impact the rationale for implementing technology adoption initiatives. Understanding not only the teachers level of technology knowledge, but the larger context that may be influencing teachers', school, or district decisions about technology adoption is vital in a successful adoption process.

The following videos provide additional information on this theory.
Video one:
Video Two: